Context: Type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia (T1HLP) in childhood is most often due to genetic deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or other related proteins.
Objective: The aim was to report a case of marked hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis due to the presence of LPL autoantibody in a young girl who was subsequently diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome.
Subject and methods: A 9-yr-old African-American girl presented with acute pancreatitis and serum triglycerides of 4784 mg/dl. Strict restriction of dietary fat reduced serum triglycerides, but she continued to experience recurrent pancreatitis. Approximately 18 months thereafter, she developed transient pauciarticular arthritis with elevated serum antinuclear antibody (>1:1280). Minor salivary gland biopsy revealed chronic sialadenitis with a dense periductal lymphocytic aggregate suggestive of Sjögren's syndrome. Genomic DNA was analyzed for LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, and LMF1. Immunoblotting was performed to detect serum LPL autoantibody.
Results: The patient had no disease-causing variants in LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, or LMF1. Immunoblotting revealed serum LPL antibody. The patient responded to immunosuppressive therapy for Sjögren's syndrome with resolution of hypertriglyceridemia.
Conclusions: Unexplained T1HLP in childhood could be secondary to LPL deficiency induced by autoantibodies. Therefore, diagnosis of autoimmune T1HLP should be entertained if clinical features are suggestive of an autoimmune process.