The Nogo receptor and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) are receptors for three myelin-derived axon-growth inhibitors, including myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). In this study, we report that the p75 receptor is required for the signal transduction of PIR-B, which interacted with p75 upon ligand binding. In addition, p75 was required for activation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP), which is induced by MAG binding to PIR-B. Mice carrying a mutation in the p75 gene showed promotion of axonal regeneration after optic nerve injury. Thus, our results indicate that p75 has a critical role in axon growth inhibition in specific neuronal tracts.