Glioblastoma patients spontaneously develop anti-tumour immune responses. However, the tumour itself develops several mechanisms that allow the tumor to escape the immune system. Clinical trials using infusion of activated autologous immune cells, or active immunotherapy with tumor antigens and dendritic cells have successfully induced anti-tumour immunity and some radiological responses. More recently, approaches targeting the mechanisms of tolerance have shown promising data in melanoma, and are currently under investigations in gliomas. However, large randomised trials are still needed to prove the usefulness of cancer vaccines in brain tumors.
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