Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, enabled the development of nanoparticle therapeutic carriers. These drug carriers are passively targeted to tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention effect, so they are ideally suited for the delivery of chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment. Indeed, advances in nanomedicine have rapidly translated into clinical practice. To date, there are five clinically approved nanoparticle chemotherapeutics for cancer and many more under clinical investigation. In this review, we discuss the various nanoparticle drug delivery platforms and the important concepts involved in nanoparticle drug delivery. We also review the clinical data on the approved nanoparticle therapeutics as well as the nanotherapeutics under clinical investigation.