Fructose and non-fructose sugar intakes in the US population and their associations with indicators of metabolic syndrome

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Nov;49(11):2875-82. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.07.068. Epub 2011 Aug 25.


Background: Relationships of sugar intakes with indicators of metabolic syndrome are important concerns for public health and safety. For individuals, dietary intake data for fructose and other sugars are limited.

Method: Descriptive statistics. The data from 25,506 subjects, aged 12-80 yr, contained in the NHANES 1999-2006 databases were analyzed for sugar intakes and health parameters.

Results: Dietary fructose was almost always consumed with other sugars. On average, fructose provided 37% of total simple sugar intake and 9% of energy intake. In more than 97% of individuals studied, fructose caloric contribution was lower than that of non-fructose sugars. Fructose and non-fructose sugar intakes had no positive association with blood concentrations of TG, HDL cholesterol, glycohemoglobin, uric acid, blood pressure, waist circumference, and BMI in the adults studied (aged 19 to 80 yr, n=17,749).

Conclusion: Daily fructose intakes with the American diet averaged approximately 37% of total sugars and 9% of daily energy. Fructose was rarely consumed solely or in excess over non-fructose sugars. Fructose and non-fructose sugar ordinary consumption was not positively associated with indicators of metabolic syndrome, uric acid and BMI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Diet
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / adverse effects*
  • Fructose / administration & dosage
  • Fructose / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / chemically induced*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweetening Agents / administration & dosage
  • Sweetening Agents / adverse effects
  • United States
  • Uric Acid
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Sweetening Agents
  • Uric Acid
  • Fructose