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Review
, 40 (3), 461-71, vii

The Pivotal Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I in Normal Mammary Development

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Review

The Pivotal Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I in Normal Mammary Development

David L Kleinberg et al. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am.

Abstract

Mammary development begins in puberty in response to an estrogen (E(2)) surge. E(2) does not act alone. It relies on pituitary growth hormone (GH) to induce insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) production in the mammary stromal compartment. In turn, IGF-I permits E(2) (and progesterone) action. During puberty, E(2) and IGF-I synergize for ductal morphogenesis. During pregnancy, progesterone joins IGF-I and E(2) to stimulate secretory differentiation necessary to produce milk. Prolactin stimulates milk production, while transforming growth factor-β inhibits proliferation. The orchestrated action of hormones, growth factors, and receptors necessary for mammary development and function are also critical in breast cancer.

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