Serum free p-cresyl sulfate levels predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in elderly hemodialysis patients--a prospective cohort study

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Mar;27(3):1169-75. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr453. Epub 2011 Sep 2.


Background: The mortality rate of elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients is high. Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality in renal patients. The association between such biomarkers and mortality in elderly HD patients has a high clinical value but remains unclear.

Methods: This prospective cohort study investigated the association of serum IS and PCS with all-cause and CV mortality in elderly HD patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of all-cause and CV mortality in this prospective cohort.

Results: Of 112 patients, 45 deaths (18 CV deaths) were identified after a mean follow-up of 33.2 months. The cumulative and CV survival of patients with lower free PCS was significantly better than high free PCS patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, serum free PCS was associated with all-cause and CV mortality after various adjustments, including age, gender and diabetes status (Model 1), albumin (Model 2), Ca × P product and intact parathyroid hormone (Model 3), hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Model 4) and hierarchically selected covariates (age, diabetes status and albumin, Model 5).

Conclusion: Serum free PCS levels may help in predicting risk of all-cause and CV mortality in elderly HD patients beyond traditional and uremia related risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cresols / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Renal Dialysis / mortality*
  • Sulfuric Acid Esters / blood*
  • Survival Rate


  • Biomarkers
  • Cresols
  • Sulfuric Acid Esters
  • 4-cresol sulfate