Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of carvedilol in fructose hypertensive rats

Xenobiotica. 2012 Feb;42(2):206-19. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2011.604746. Epub 2011 Sep 5.


Cardiovascular effects and pharmacokinetics of carvedilol were assessed in fructose-fed rats using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. Male Sprague-Dowley rats were randomly assigned to receive tap water (C rats) or fructose solution (10% w/v) (F rats) during 6 weeks. Effects of carvedilol (1-3 mg/kg i.v.) on blood pressure, heart rate and blood pressure variability were recorded. Carvedilol plasma pharmacokinetics was studied by traditional blood sampling. Relationship between carvedilol concentrations and their hypotensive and bradycardic effects was established by PK-PD modeling. Vascular sympatholytic activity of carvedilol was assessed by estimation of drug effects on low frequency blood pressure variability using spectral analysis. A greater volume of distribution and clearance of S-carvedilol compared to R-enantiomer was found in both experimental groups. Although PK-PD properties of S-carvedilol chronotropic effect were not altered in F rats, hypertensive rats showed greater efficacy to the carvedilol hypotensive response after administration of the higher dose. A similar potency of carvedilol to inhibit sympathetic vascular activity was found in F rats. Carvedilol showed enantioselective pharmacokinetic properties with increased distribution in F rats compared with normotensive animals. An enhanced hypotensive activity of carvedilol was found in F rats compared with C rats, which is not related to enhance sympatholytic activity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / chemistry
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Carbazoles / chemistry
  • Carbazoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Carbazoles / pharmacology
  • Carvedilol
  • Fructose
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / metabolism
  • Male
  • Propanolamines / chemistry
  • Propanolamines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Propanolamines / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Carbazoles
  • Propanolamines
  • Carvedilol
  • Fructose