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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2011 Sep;165(9):847-56.
doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.136.

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of 4 Randomized Regimens to Treat Early Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Children With Cystic Fibrosis

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Randomized Controlled Trial

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of 4 Randomized Regimens to Treat Early Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Children With Cystic Fibrosis

Miriam M Treggiari et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. .
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Abstract

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of 4 antipseudomonal treatments in children with cystic fibrosis with recently acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Multicenter trial in the United States.

Participants: Three hundred four children with cystic fibrosis aged 1 to 12 years within 6 months of P aeruginosa detection.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 antibiotic regimens for 18 months (six 12-week quarters) between December 2004 and June 2009. Participants randomized to cycled therapy received tobramycin inhalation solution (300 mg twice a day) for 28 days, with oral ciprofloxacin (15-20 mg/kg twice a day) or oral placebo for 14 days every quarter, while participants randomized to culture-based therapy received the same treatments only during quarters with positive P aeruginosa cultures.

Main outcome measures: The primary end points were time to pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous antibiotics and proportion of P aeruginosa -positive cultures.

Results: The intention-to-treat analysis included 304 participants. There was no interaction between treatments. There were no statistically significant differences in exacerbation rates between cycled and culture-based groups (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.66) or ciprofloxacin and placebo (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.82-2.54). The odds ratios of P aeruginosa- positive culture comparing the cycled vs culture-based group were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.49-1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.71-1.71) comparing ciprofloxacin vs placebo. Adverse events were similar across groups.

Conclusions: No difference in the rate of exacerbation or prevalence of P aeruginosa positivity was detected between cycled and culture-based therapies. Adding ciprofloxacin produced no benefits.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00097773.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of participants through each stage of the randomized trial. TIS indicates tobramycin inhalation solution. * One adverse event resulting in withdrawal was due to skin rash attributed to ciprofloxacin.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Percent of participants prescribed treatment in the cycled (black bars) and culture-based (light gray bars) therapy groups.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Proportion of participants remaining free of exacerbations requiring intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization over time, comparing (a) participants who received cycled therapy (solid line, N=152) to participants who received culture-based therapy (dotted line, N=152); (b) participants who received tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) and oral ciprofloxacin (solid line, N=152) to participants who received TIS and oral placebo (dotted line, N=152); (c) Proportion of participants who were Pa positive at each study visit comparing participants who received cycled therapy (black bars, N=152) to participants who received culture-based therapy (light gray bars, N=152); and (d) participants who received TIS and oral ciprofloxacin (dark gray bars, N=152) to participants who received TIS and oral placebo (white bars, N=152).

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