Microfluidic sensing: state of the art fabrication and detection techniques

J Biomed Opt. 2011 Aug;16(8):080901. doi: 10.1117/1.3607430.


Here we introduce the existing fabrication techniques, detection methods, and related techniques for microfluidic sensing, with an emphasis on the detection techniques. A general survey and comparison of the fabrication techniques were given, including prototyping (hot embossing, inject molding, and soft lithography) and direct fabrication (laser micromachining, photolithography, lithography, and x-ray lithography) techniques. This is followed by an in-depth look at detection techniques: optical, electrochemical, mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based sensing approaches and related techniques. In the end, we highlight several of the most important issues for future work on microfluidic sensing. This article aims at providing a tutorial review with both introductory materials and inspiring information on microfluidic fabrication and sensing for nonspecialists.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / methods*
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / trends
  • Microtechnology
  • Printing