Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7

Dev Psychol. 2011 Nov;47(6):1579-88. doi: 10.1037/a0025292. Epub 2011 Sep 5.


Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mother-Child Relations*
  • Oocyte Donation / psychology
  • Parents / psychology
  • Pregnancy / psychology*
  • Psychology, Child*
  • Surrogate Mothers / psychology*