Hypertension and CKD

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2011 Sep;18(5):355-61. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2011.03.003.


Hypertension is found in more than 50% of pediatric patients with CKD. However, its prevalence varies according to the cause of CKD. It is relatively infrequent in children with structural disorders. Acquired renal disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension, similar to that of adults. Recent studies using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring indicate that children with CKD also have a high prevalence of masked hypertension. Similar to adults, long-standing and uncontrolled hypertension in children is associated with the progression of CKD and development of end-organ damage including early cardiomyopathy and premature atherosclerosis. Aggressive treatment of hypertension should be an essential part of pediatric CKD care, not just to prevent the development of symptomatic cardiovascular disease but also to delay progression of CKD. Recent findings from the European Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on Progression of Chronic Renal Failure in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE) trial have shown that the aggressive treatment of blood pressure, to below the 50th percentile, has even greater benefit in children with CKD, unlike results seen in adult studies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Atherosclerosis / etiology
  • Cardiomyopathies / etiology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology*
  • Risk Factors


  • Antihypertensive Agents