We retrospectively investigated the ability of adalimumab (ADA) to reduce disease activity, improve physical function, and retard the progression of structural damage in 167 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and functional outcomes were compared between patients with or without prior biologic treatment and those with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX) treatment. At week 52, 38.3% achieved clinical remission: 42.4 and 28.6% of patients achieved remission in those without and with previous biologics, respectively, while 42.7 and 12.5% of patients achieved remission in those with and without concomitant MTX, respectively. ADA treatment significantly reduced the rate of radiographic progression from 27.1 ± 46.0 (median 13.6; 25th-75th percentiles 8.3 to 28.9) at baseline to 0.8 ± 5.0 (median 0.0; 25th-75th percentiles -0.9 to 2.0) at week 52 (P < 0.0001). Radiographic progression was absent in 59.8% of patients. Sixty adverse events (34.21/100 patient-years) were reported, 16 of which were serious (9.12/100 patient-years). ADA therapy is highly effective for reducing disease activity, improving physical function, and limiting radiographic progression. It is generally safe and well tolerated by Japanese RA patients in routine clinical practice.