PD-1 and autoimmunity

Crit Rev Immunol. 2011;31(4):265-95. doi: 10.1615/critrevimmunol.v31.i4.10.


An initiating T cell response requires both costimulatory signaling and T cell receptor/MHC binding. The immune system balances positive and negative costimulatory signal pathways to activate and deactivate T cells. This review focuses primarily on PD-1 and its ligands, which form a crucial inhibitory costimulatory pathway for maintaining peripheral tolerance, and their contribution to autoimmunity. Since 1992, when PD-1 was isolated, many studies have described the physiological roles of PD-1 signaling, reported relationships between Pdcd-1 gene polymorphism and autoimmune diseases, and applied PD-1/PD-1 ligand modulation to clinical trials. This review summarizes recent advances and future therapeutic applications of PD-1 and its ligands to autoimmune diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / genetics
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / metabolism
  • Autoimmunity* / genetics
  • Autoimmunity* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / genetics*
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • PDCD1 protein, human
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell