The K-fgf/hst oncogene encodes a growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family that is secreted and transforms cells through a mechanism of autocrine cell proliferation. K-fgf-transformed cells are highly tumorigenic in immunocompetent allogeneic and syngeneic animals. BALB/c mice were immunized with a bacterial fusion protein consisting of a portion of the MS2 polymerase and of the human K-FGF precursor lacking only the first 4 amino acids or with a recombinant protein corresponding to the mature, secreted form of K-FGF (176 amino acids). They were then challenged with syngeneic K-fgf- or H-ras-transformed cells. Vaccinated animals exhibited a significant degree of protection against tumor induction, which was specific for K-fgf-transformed cells and correlated with the ability of the immunized mice to produce high titers of anti-K-FGF antibodies. Thus immunization with a single oncogene product can protect animals against tumor cells expressing this oncogene.