Neuropsychological, behavioral, and academic sequelae of cleft: early developmental, school age, and adolescent/young adult outcomes

Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2012 Jul;49(4):387-96. doi: 10.1597/10-237. Epub 2011 Sep 9.


This article reviews behavioral, neuropsychological, and academic outcomes of individuals with cleft across three age levels: (1) infancy/early development, (2) school age, and (3) adolescence/young adulthood. The review points out that attachment, neurocognitive functioning, academic performance/learning, and adjustment outcomes are the result of a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors and vary with developmental level, sex, and craniofacial anomaly diagnosis. The degree to which associated genetic or neurodevelopmental conditions may explain inconsistent findings is unknown and suggests the need for caution in generalizing from group data on cleft.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleft Lip / physiopathology*
  • Cleft Lip / psychology*
  • Cleft Palate / physiopathology*
  • Cleft Palate / psychology*
  • Developmental Disabilities / physiopathology*
  • Developmental Disabilities / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Young Adult