To study the effects of increase in the degree of stenosis severity and subsequent complexity of hemodynamic patterns on hemodynamic parameters, experimental investigations and numerical simulations were performed. The correlations between the large negative Stress Phase Angle (SPA), the low mean Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and high Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) were investigated at the distal shoulder and post-stenotic regions as the outcomes of elevated stenosis severity. Models included non-Newtonian fluid flow in stenotic arteries with 30-80% symmetrical stenoses. To study the interactions between pulsatile WSS and pulsatile wall circumferential stress (WCS) acting on endothelial cells, SPA as the phase difference between WSS and WCS waves was used. Moreover, the distribution of SPA on the lumen axis was compared to the distributions of the mean WSS and OSI that have been regarded until now as the determinants of atherosclerosis-prone regions. Results indicate that an increase in stenosis severity, not only affects the mean WSS, mean WCS and pulse amplitudes, but also influences the phase difference between them. The SPA is large negative on the distal shoulder and post-stenotic areas where atherosclerotic plaque develops. The increasing stenosis severity and the subsequent increasing complexity of hemodynamic patterns affect the correlation between any of the low mean WSS and high OSI with large negative SPA, such that it not only leads to create and develop some regions where the correlation between any of the low mean WSS and high OSI with large negative SPA is well but also leads to create and develop other regions where such correlations fail.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.