Results of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the set up of the randomized controlled TOTAL trial

Early Hum Dev. 2011 Sep;87(9):619-24. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.08.001.


In isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia, lung size and/or the position of the liver are predictive of neonatal outcome. Percutaneous Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Occlusion (FETO) by a balloon can be undertaken to prompt lung growth in the worst cases. The feasibility and safety of FETO is no longer at stake, and it is associated with an apparent increase in neonatal survival. The gestational age at birth, the pre-existing lung size, the ability to remove the balloon prior to birth, and the lung response are predicting outcome. The most frequent complication is preterm premature rupture of the membranes, and as a consequence preterm delivery, which also complicates balloon removal. We have set up a randomized trial for the formal evaluation of FETO in Europe, including criteria for fetoscopy centers. Training of European as well as North American centers is taking place, so that the procedure could be safely and more widely offered.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Balloon Occlusion
  • Fetoscopy / methods*
  • Gestational Age
  • Hernia, Diaphragmatic / therapy
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital*
  • Humans
  • Liver / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Organ Size
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal