[Clinical Presentations and Classification of Rosacea]

Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Sep;138 Suppl 2:S138-47. doi: 10.1016/S0151-9638(11)70079-5.
[Article in French]


Rosacea is a chronic skin disease affecting up to 10% of the population. It includes various combinations of characteristic signs and symptoms in a centrofacial distribution. There is a lack of consensus in the understanding of the different expressions of rosacea and the classification of the disease. It has been previously classified into four stages (pre-rosacea, stages I-III) and a variety of variants (persistent erythema and edema in rosacea, rosacea conglobata, rosacea fulminans, etc.). The National Rosacea Society (NRS) has classified rosacea into four subtypes (erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, ocular) and one variant (lupoid or granulomatous) avoiding assumptions on pathogenesis and progression. This classification system uses diagnostic criteria which assess both primary and secondary features of the disease. Suggestions for rosacea severity assessment have been included. Classification of rosacea into stages or subtypes, with or without progression, remains controversial until there is a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects
  • Edema / etiology
  • Eye Diseases / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Rosacea / classification*
  • Rosacea / diagnosis*
  • Rosacea / etiology
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones