Association of moderate coffee intake with self-reported diabetes among urban Brazilians

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3216-31. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8083216. Epub 2011 Aug 3.


Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440). A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level-age and marital status; second level-diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level-cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level-coffee intake (≤100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day). After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04) prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of ≤100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

Keywords: body mass index; caffeine; chlorogenic acids; coffee intake; diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Coffee / adverse effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Poisson Distribution
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Coffee