The Flamingo/Celsr seven-transmembrane cadherins represent a conserved subgroup of the cadherin superfamily involved in multiple aspects of development. In the developing nervous system, Fmi/Celsr control axonal blueprint and dendritic morphogenesis from invertebrates to mammals. As expected from their molecular structure, seven-transmembrane cadherins can induce cell-cell homophilic interactions but also intracellular signaling. Fmi/Celsr is known to regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) through interactions with PCP proteins. In the nervous system, Fmi/Celsr can function in collaboration with or independently of other PCP genes. Here, we focus on recent studies which show that seven-transmembrane cadherins use distinct molecular mechanisms to achieve diverse functions in the development of the nervous system.