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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2011 Sep 12;11:24.
doi: 10.1186/1471-2482-11-24.

Cosmesis and Body Image After Single-Port Laparoscopic or Conventional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Multicenter Double Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial (SPOCC-trial)

Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Cosmesis and Body Image After Single-Port Laparoscopic or Conventional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Multicenter Double Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial (SPOCC-trial)

Daniel C Steinemann et al. BMC Surg. .
Free PMC article


Background: Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC). Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated.

Methods/design: The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC) in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10%) resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm.

Discussion: The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body image after SPLC.

Trial registration: ( NCT 01278472.

Trial registration: NCT00904865 NCT01094379 NCT01104727 NCT01339325 NCT01348620.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Study flowchart.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Setting in Single-Port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Setting in 4-Port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

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