Neuroprotective effect of Alpinia galanga (L.) fractions on Aβ(25-35) induced amnesia in mice

J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 31;138(1):85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.048. Epub 2011 Sep 1.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: The rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Zingiberaceae), a ginger substitute for flavouring food was traditionally used as nervine tonic and stimulant.

Aim of the study: This investigation is designed to screen cognitive improvement of Alpinia galanga (AG) fractions in Alzheimer's type of amnesia in mice induced by Aβ((25-35)).

Materials and methods: Alzheimer's disease induced mice treated with fractions (n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) of AG in 200 and 400mg/kg. Neurotoxicity was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ((25-35)) on the 14th day of 21 days drug treatment. Open field and water maze were carried to determine habituation memory and hippocampal memory. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, catalase and vitamin C) were determined in brain tissue homogenate to estimate the brain biochemical changes and its anti-amnesic potential with intensity of oxidative stress signaling. Further bioactive (chloroform) fraction was eluted through column chromatography to identify the lead molecules.

Results: Increased habituation memory and decreased escape latency in behavioral parameter are the indicative of the cognitive enhancement after treatment with Alpinia galanga fractions. Increment in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and antioxidant activity depicts brain membrane integrity improvement and free radical scavenging property. AChE level was decreased to improve the cognition by enhancing cholinergic transmission.

Conclusion: Anti-amnesic effect was exerted by various fractions of Alpinia galanga. Among all fractions, preeminent neuroprotection was exerted by chloroform fraction, which has compound, 1'δ-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and it may be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's type of amnesia. These results further motivate us to explore the activity of lead compound's anti-amnesic effect on transgenic mice model of AD.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Alpinia*
  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Amnesia / drug therapy*
  • Amnesia / metabolism
  • Amnesia / pathology
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane / pathology
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Nootropic Agents / pharmacology
  • Nootropic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Rhizome
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Antioxidants
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Nootropic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase