Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2011 Nov 14;171(20):1811-8.
doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.443. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Lifestyle Factors on the Risks of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke


Lifestyle Factors on the Risks of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

Yurong Zhang et al. Arch Intern Med. .


Background: The joint effects of different lifestyle factors on stroke risk are still to some extent unclear, especially regarding hemorrhagic stroke.

Methods: We prospectively investigated the association of different indicators of lifestyle (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and vegetable and alcohol consumption) with total and type-specific stroke incidence among 36 686 Finnish participants who were 25 to 74 years old and free of coronary heart disease and stroke at baseline.

Results: During a mean follow-up period of 13.7 years, 1478 people developed an incident stroke event (1167 ischemic and 311 hemorrhagic). The multivariate-adjusted (age, sex, education, family history of stroke, history of diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol level) hazard ratios associated with adherence to 0 to 1 (reference group), 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle indicators were 1, 0.66, 0.57, 0.51, and 0.33 (P < .001 for trend) for total stroke; 1, 0.67, 0.60, 0.50, and 0.30 (P < .001 for trend) for ischemic stroke; and 1, 0.63, 0.49, 0.49, and 0.40 (P < .001 for trend) for hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. These inverse associations were similar in both men and women. The partial population attributable risk percentages associated with adherence to 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle indicators were 26.3%, 43.8%, and 54.6% for total stroke; 22.7%, 45.3%, and 59.7% for ischemic stroke; and 35.0%, 35.0%, and 36.1% for hemorrhagic stroke, respectively.

Conclusion: Healthy lifestyle factors are associated with a lower risk of stroke, and there is a graded inverse association between the number of healthy lifestyle indicators and the risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke.

Comment in

  • The quality of lifestyle and the quality of life.
    Moreno M, Pearson TA. Moreno M, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Nov 14;171(20):1819-20. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.442. Epub 2011 Sep 12. Arch Intern Med. 2011. PMID: 21911620 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 32 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

MeSH terms