Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn on the development of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats

Clin Ter. 2011;162(4):307-12.


Objective: The aim of our study was to see the efficacy of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on development of osteopenia in ovariectomy induced Wistar rats.

Materials and methods: The female Wistar rats were ovariectomized or Sham operated. The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/ kg b.w, i.p.), the ovaries were removed bilaterally. Sham-operation was performed in the same manner but only exposing the ovaries (sham operated (SHAM) group). A day later, the ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each. The groups are 1. Sham operated (SHAM), 2. Ovariectomized (OVX), 3. Ovariectomized and treated with 25 mg/kg b.w of raloxifene (OVX+RAL), 4. Ovariectomized and treated with 500 mg/kg b.w of petroleum ether extract of CQ (OVX+CQ). The treatment continued for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, rats in all groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Before sacrifice, blood was collected for the estimation of serum ALP, TRAP, Calcium and hydroxyproline; where as the left femur was used for histomorphometrical analysis.

Results: The findings assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, histomorphometry and biochemical analysis. As compared to SHAM group, OVX group animals showed a significant rise in serum ALP, TRAP and hydroxyproline levels at the end of 1 month following ovariectomy while no significant change was seen in the serum calcium levels. ALP and TRAP levels of OVX + RAL and OVX + CQ groups showed a further increase following administration of raloxifene and Cissus quadrangularis. The serum hydroxyproline content was found to be increased in the OVX + CQ compared to SHAM group. CQ significantly increased the thickness of both cortical (p <0.001) and trabecular bone (p <0.001).This action of CQ is comparable to action of Raloxifene. )These data suggest a strong anti-osteoporotic activity of CQ.

Conclusion: The results confirm, at least in part, for the use of Cissus quadrangularis in folk medicine to treat osteoporosis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / blood
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / blood
  • Alkanes
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / blood
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / pathology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / prevention & control*
  • Bone Resorption / etiology
  • Bone Resorption / prevention & control
  • Calcium / blood
  • Cissus*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Female
  • Femur / pathology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyproline / blood
  • Isoenzymes / blood
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
  • Ovariectomy / adverse effects
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase


  • Alkanes
  • Biomarkers
  • Isoenzymes
  • Plant Extracts
  • Raloxifene Hydrochloride
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • naphtha
  • Hydroxyproline
  • Calcium