Myxobolus honghuensis n. sp. is described from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), during a survey of myxosporean parasites in Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China. It is characterized by the presence of round plasmodia of 5-12 mm in diameter in the pharynx of host. Mature spores of M. honghuensis were pyriform in frontal view and anterior pointed with bluntly round posterior, they measured 16.9 ± 0.5 (15.1-19.5) μm long, 10.4 ± 0.4 (9.0-11.3) μm wide, and 8.4 ± 0.4 (7.9-9.1) μm thick. Two polar capsules were pyriform and slightly unequal with larger polar capsule 8.4 ± 0.4 (7.6-10.2) μm × 3.9 ± 0.2 (3.0-4.5) μm and smaller capsule 7.9 ± 0.2 (7.0-9.3) μm × 3.7 ± 0.3 (2.8-4.1) μm. Polar filaments coiled with seven to eight turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence data revealed that M. honghuensis n. sp. was distinct from other described Myxobolus species. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. honghuensis n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.