Mammographic density and intake of selected nutrients and vitamins in Norwegian women

Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(7):1011-20. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.605983. Epub 2011 Sep 14.


Investigating the association between dietary factors and mammographic density (MD) could shed light on the relationship between diet and breast cancer risk. We took advantage of a national mammographic screening program to study the association between intake of nutrients and MD. In this study, we analyzed data of 2,252 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 yr who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2004. MD was assessed on digitized mammograms using a computer-assisted method. We used multivariate linear regression models to determine least square means of percent and absolute MD. Overall, we observed no associations between MD and intake of total calories, protein, carbohydrates, cholesterol, and dietary fiber. There was a positive borderline statistically significant association between absolute MD and total fat intake (P = 0.10) and between percent MD and intake of saturated fat (P = 0.06). There was no association between MD and intake of calcium, retinol, vitamins A, B12, C, or D, or combined intake of vitamin D and calcium. This study provides some evidence of an association between MD and dietary intake. Our study highlights the importance of adequate adjustments for BMI in studies of diet and MD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breast / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake
  • European Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Linear Models
  • Mammography / methods
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Pilot Projects
  • Postmenopause
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Micronutrients