The Resident In-Service Examination (RISE) addresses 1 area of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Outcome Project; RISE results demonstrate progressive attainment of pathology knowledge during training. We compared RISE scores with primary pathology board certification success for residents graduating in 2008 and 2009. Overall RISE and nearly all sectional scores in anatomic and clinical pathology were significantly higher for residents passing all certifying examinations at the first attempt vs residents who failed any examination. The risk of failing increased with each lower quartile of overall RISE score, such that 34% (2009) and 54% (2008) of residents in the lowest quartile failed at least 1 certifying examination. Two thirds of graduating residents with lowest quartile scores had a similar quartile ranking in the previous RISE, identifying them as at risk. Residents passing the American Board of Pathology certifying examinations have a higher level of medical knowledge in general and specific pathology disciplines as assessed by senior RISE scores.