Metabolic effects of reducing rate of glucose ingestion by single bolus versus continuous sipping

Diabetes. 1990 Jul;39(7):775-81. doi: 10.2337/diab.39.7.775.


Modifying the rate of absorption has been proposed as a therapeutic principle of specific relevance to diabetes. To demonstrate clearly the metabolic benefits that might result from reducing the rate of nutrient delivery, nine healthy volunteers took 50 g glucose in 700 ml water on two occasions: over 5-10 min (bolus) and at a constant rate over 3.5 h (sipping). Despite similar 4-h blood glucose areas, large reductions were seen in serum insulin (54 +/- 10%, P less than 0.001) and C-peptide (47 +/- 12%, P less than 0.01) areas after sipping, together with lower gastric inhibitory polypeptide and enteroglucagon levels and urinary catecholamine output. There was also prolonged suppression of plasma glucagon, growth hormone, and free-fatty acid (FFA) levels after sipping, whereas these levels rose 3-4 h after the glucose bolus. An intravenous glucose tolerance test at 4 h demonstrated a 48 +/- 10% (P less than 0.01) more rapid decline in blood glucose (Kg) after sipping than after the bolus. Furthermore, FFA and total branched-chain amino acid levels as additional markers of insulin action were lower over this period despite similar absolute levels of insulin and C-peptide. These findings indicate that prolonging the rate of glucose absorption enhances insulin economy and glucose disposal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Amino Acids / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Epinephrine / urine
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood
  • Glucose / administration & dosage*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test / methods*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Norepinephrine / urine
  • Reference Values


  • Amino Acids
  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Insulin
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucose
  • Norepinephrine
  • Epinephrine