Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women (Mousavi et al in Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 9(2):275-278, 2008). Genetic predisposition accounts for 15% of all breast cancers and germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a substantial proportion of high-risk breast and breast/ovarian cancer families (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer in Lancet 350:1047-1059, 1997; Lee et al in Int Nurs Rev 55:355-359, 2008; Hulka and Stark in Lancet 346:883-887, 1995; Kelsey in Epidemiol Rev 15:256-263, 1993; Tischer et al in J Biol Chem 266:11947-11954, 1991; Newman et al in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3044-3048, 1988). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate mutations of BRCA1/2 in high risk Iranian families. We screened 85 patients who met our minimal criteria. The entire coding sequences and each intron/exon boundaries of BRCA1/2 genes were screened by direct sequencing. In the present study, we could detect the novel following mutations: p.Glu1735 p.Gly1140Ser, p.Ile26Val, p.Leu1418X, p.Glu23Gln, p.Leu3X, p.Asn1403His, p.Lys581X, p.Pro938Arg, p.Thr77Arg, p.Arg7Cys, p.Ser177Thr, IVS7+83(TT), IVS8-70(-CATT), IVS2+9(-GC), IVS1-20(-GA), IVS1-8(-AG), IVS2+24(AG), IVS5-8 (A-G), IVS2(35-39)TTcctatGAT in BRCA1 and p.Glu1391Gly, 1994_1995 (Ins A), IVS6-70-T>G in BRCA2. In agreement with findings in other populations, we found that family history is a good predictor of being a mutation carrier. Five pathogenic BRCA1 mutations and one pathogenic BRCA2 mutation were detected in 85 index cases.