Medical errors are topics of increasing importance in neonatology. Very few data are available on neonatal malpractice claims. We report the first data obtained in Italy on neonatology regarding a wide population study during a 6-year survey. Data concerning 191 claims regarding delivery room (n = 77; 38.74%), nursery (n = 72; 37,69%), NICU (n = 42; 21,98%) and the transport system (n = 3; 1.57%) are presented and discussed. On data allow an analysis of main causes and suggest how to face the problem.