D-amino acid oxidase gene therapy sensitizes glioma cells to the antiglycolytic effect of 3-bromopyruvate

Cancer Gene Ther. 2012 Jan;19(1):1-18. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2011.59. Epub 2011 Sep 16.


Glioma tumors are refractory to conventional treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumors in humans. In this study, we introduce oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy as a new suggested treatment for glioblastoma. OSED utilizes D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress and apoptosis through generating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). OSED combines DAO with 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II (HK II) inhibitor that interferes with Warburg effect, a metabolic alteration of most tumor cells that is characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Our data revealed that 3BP induced depletion of energetic capabilities of glioma cells. 3BP induced H2O2 production as a novel mechanism of its action. C6 glioma transfected with DAO and treated with D-serine together with 3BP-sensitized glioma cells to 3BP and decreased markedly proliferation, clonogenic power and viability in a three-dimensional tumor model with lesser effect on normal astrocytes. DAO gene therapy using atelocollagen as an in vivo transfection agent proved effective in a glioma tumor model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, especially after combination with 3BP. OSED treatment was safe and tolerable in SD rats. OSED therapy may be a promising therapeutic modality for glioma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase / biosynthesis
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase / genetics*
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Genetic Therapy / methods*
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Glioma / genetics*
  • Glioma / metabolism
  • Glioma / pathology
  • Glioma / therapy*
  • Glycolysis / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Pyruvates / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Transfection


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Pyruvates
  • bromopyruvate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase