Biomaterials that regulate growth factor activity via bioinspired interactions

Adv Funct Mater. 2011 May 24;21(10):1754-1768. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201002468.


Growth factor activity is localized within the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) by specific non-covalent interactions with core ECM biomolecules, such as proteins and proteoglycans. Recently, these interactions have inspired us and others to develop synthetic biomaterials that can non-covalently regulate growth factor activity for tissue engineering applications. For example, biomaterials covalently or non-covalently modified with heparin glycosaminoglycans can augment growth factor release strategies. In addition, recent studies demonstrate that biomaterials modified with heparin-binding peptides can sequester cell-secreted heparin proteoglycans and, in turn, sequester growth factors and regulate stem cell behavior. Another set of studies show that modular versions of growth factor molecules can be designed to interact with specific components of natural and synthetic ECMs, including collagen and hydroxyapatite. In addition, layer-by-layer assemblies of GAGs and other natural polyelectrolytes retain growth factors at a cell-material interface via specific non-covalent interactions. This review will detail the various bioinspired strategies being used to non-covalently localize growth factor activity within biomaterials, and will highlight in vivo examples of the efficacy of these materials to promote tissue regeneration.