Different authors have explored the feasibility of autografting patients with multiple myeloma (MM) on an outpatient basis. Peg-filgrastim (PEG), a long-acting recombinant G-CSF, has similar efficacy when compared to conventional G-CSF for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, but little is known about its use in the autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) setting, namely in patients programmed to be autografted on outpatient basis. In this study, we compared therapeutic results in terms of hematopoietic recovery, non-hematologic toxicity, duration of hospitalization and percentage of hospital readmission between patients receiving either conventional G-CSF or PEG. Thirty-eight MM patients (48 autografts) received PEG, given at a single dose of 6 mg at day +5 from stem cell infusion, while 81 (113 autografts) received G-CSF from day + 2 up to stable neutrophil recovery. The conditioning regimen was high dose melphalan in all patients. The median age and the median number of CD34 + cell infused were comparable between the two groups. Overall, a second hospital admission was required in 36 procedures out of 161 (32%). Febrile neutropenia (FN) and severe mucositis were the most frequent causes of hospitalization. There was no statistically significant difference as percentage of hospital readmission is concerned: in the PEG group readmission was needed in 6 out of 48 autografts (12%) as opposed to 30 out of 113 (26%) in the G-CSF subgroup, p: 0.06. The median time of hospital stay for readmitted patients was identical for the two subgroups (9 days vs. 9 days, p: 0.94). Finally, one case of transplant related mortality occurred in the whole patient series (0.6%). In conclusion, ASCT on an outpatient basis is feasible and safe in patients with MM, the majority of whom are manageable at home. The administration of single dose PEG results in no different outcome in terms of safety and efficacy as compared to 8 days of G-CSF.
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.