Study objective: To evaluate the clinical response and safety of high-dose daptomycin for treatment of complicated gram-positive infections.
Design: Multicenter, retrospective, observational, case series analysis.
Setting: Five academic medical centers in four major United States cities.
Patients: Two hundred fifty adults, not undergoing dialysis, who received high-dose daptomycin (≥ 8 mg/kg/day) for at least 72 hours for complicated gram-positive infections between January 1, 2005, and March 1, 2010.
Measurements and main results: Clinical and microbiologic outcomes were assessed at the end of high-dose daptomycin therapy. Safety evaluations were recorded for all patients, and when available, baseline, end-of-therapy, and highest observed serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were recorded. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) were the primary organisms isolated. The median dose of daptomycin was 8.9 mg/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR] 8.0-10.0 mg/kg/day). The median duration of daptomycin during hospitalization for MRSA and VRE infection was 10 days (IQR 5-16 days) and 13 days (IQR 6-18 days), respectively. Among the 250 patients, high-dose daptomycin was primarily used as salvage therapy after vancomycin treatment (184 patients [73.6%]). Primary infections included complicated bacteremia (119 patients [47.6%]), endocarditis (59 [23.6%]), skin or wound (70 [28.0%]), and bone or joint (67 [26.8%]). Overall, clinical response and microbiologic success were assessed in 83.6% (209/250 patients) and 80.3% (175/218 patients), respectively. Isolates from 13 patients (5.2%) developed nonsusceptibility to daptomycin, with most of these patients having extended vancomycin exposure. Three patients (1.2%) developed an adverse event attributable to high-dose daptomycin therapy, with the event considered either mild or moderate in severity. The median end-of-therapy CPK level was 39 U/L (IQR 26-67 U/L). No significant correlation was found between daptomycin dose and highest observed CPK level.
Conclusion: Daptomycin dosages of 8 mg/kg/day or greater may be safe and effective in patients with complicated gram-positive infections. Further clinical studies are warranted.