Healthier students are better learners: a missing link in school reforms to close the achievement gap

J Sch Health. 2011 Oct;81(10):593-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00632.x.


Objectives: This article provides an introduction to the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health on "Healthier Students Are Better Learners."

Methods: Literature was reviewed and synthesized to identify health problems affecting school-aged youth that are highly prevalent, disproportionately affect urban minority youth, directly and indirectly causally affect academic achievement, and can be feasibly and effectively addressed through school health programs and services.

Results: Based on these criteria, 7 educationally relevant health disparities were selected as strategic priorities to help close the achievement gap: (1) vision, (2) asthma, (3) teen pregnancy, (4) aggression and violence, (5) physical activity, (6) breakfast, and (7) inattention and hyperactivity. Research clearly shows that these health problems influence students' motivation and ability to learn. Disparities among urban minority youth are outlined, along with the causal pathways through which each adversely affects academic achievement, including sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. Evidence-based approaches that schools can implement to address these problems are presented. These health problems and the causal pathways they influence have interactive and a synergistic effect, which is why they must be addressed collectively using a coordinated approach.

Conclusions: No matter how well teachers are prepared to teach, no matter what accountability measures are put in place, no matter what governing structures are established for schools, educational progress will be profoundly limited if students are not motivated and able to learn. Particular health problems play a major role in limiting the motivation and ability to learn of urban minority youth. This is why reducing these disparities through a coordinated approach warrants validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative to close the achievement gap. Local, state, and national policies for implementing this recommendation are suggested.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child Welfare / psychology*
  • Educational Status
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Learning*
  • Public Health
  • School Health Services*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Students / psychology*
  • Teaching
  • United States