A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3 years, 2007-2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and rotavirus. Among syndromes of acute encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was the most frequent, followed by clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES). Influenza virus was strongly associated with ANE and MERS, HHV-6 with AESD, and rotavirus with MERS. Mortality was high in ANE and HSES, but was low in AESD, MERS and HHV-6-associated encephalopathy. Neurologic sequelae were common in AESD and ANE, but were absent in MERS.
Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.