Influence of I(Ks) heterogeneities on the genesis of the T-wave: a computational evaluation

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012 Feb;59(2):311-22. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2011.2168397. Epub 2011 Sep 15.


Despite the commonly accepted notion that action potential duration (APD) is distributed heterogeneously throughout the ventricles and that the associated dispersion of repolarization is mainly responsible for the shape of the T-wave, its concordance and exact morphology are still not completely understood. This paper evaluated the T-waves for different previously measured heterogeneous ion channel distributions. To this end, cardiac activation and repolarization was simulated on a high resolution and anisotropic biventricular model of a volunteer. From the same volunteer, multichannel ECG data were obtained. Resulting transmembrane voltage distributions for the previously measured heterogeneous ion channel expressions were used to calculate the ECG and the simulated T-wave was compared to the measured ECG for quantitative evaluation. Both exclusively transmural (TM) and exclusively apico-basal (AB) setups produced concordant T-waves, whereas interventricular (IV) heterogeneities led to notched T-wave morphologies. The best match with the measured T-wave was achieved for a purely AB setup with shorter apical APD and a mix of AB and TM heterogeneity with M-cells in midmyocardial position and shorter apical APD. Finally, we probed two configurations in which the APD was negatively correlated with the activation time. In one case, this meant that the repolarization directly followed the sequence of activation. Still, the associated T-waves were concordant albeit of low amplitude.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Computer Simulation
  • Dogs
  • Electrocardiography / methods*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Heart / anatomy & histology
  • Heart / physiology
  • Heart Conduction System / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Rabbits
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*
  • Swine