We hypothesized that prior exercise would prevent postprandial lipaemia (PPL)-induced increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in three distinct circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) subpopulations. CD34(+), CD31(+)/CD14(-)/CD34(-), and CD31(+)/CD14(+)/CD34(-) CACs were isolated from blood samples obtained from 10 healthy men before and 4 h after ingesting a high fat meal with or without ∼50 min of prior endurance exercise. Significant PPL-induced increases in ROS production in both sets of CD31(+) cells were abolished by prior exercise. Experimental ex vivo inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production indicated that mitochondria were the primary source of PPL-induced oxidative stress. The attenuated increases in ROS with prior exercise were associated with increased antioxidant gene expression in CD31(+)/CD14(-)/CD34(-) cells and reduced intracellular lipid uptake in CD31(+)/CD14(+)/CD34(-) cells. These findings were associated with systemic cardiovascular benefits of exercise, as serum triglyceride, oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and plasma endothelial microparticle concentrations were lower in the prior exercise trial than the control trial. In conclusion, prior exercise completely prevents PPL-induced increases in ROS in CD31(+)/CD14(-)/CD34(-) and CD31(+)/CD14(+)/CD34(-) cells. The mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on CAC function appear to vary among specific CAC types.