Glucocorticoids are stress hormones that maintain homeostasis through gene regulation mediated by nuclear receptors. We have discovered that other cellular stressors are integrated with glucocorticoid signaling through a new hormone-independent phosphorylation site, Ser134, on the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Ser134 phosphorylation is induced by a variety of stress-activating stimuli in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner. Cells expressing a mutant glucocorticoid receptor incapable of phosphorylation at Ser134 (S134A-GR) had significantly altered hormone-dependent genome-wide transcriptional responses and associated hormone-mediated cellular functions. The phosphorylation of Ser134 significantly increased the association of the GR with the zeta isoform of the 14-3-3 class of signaling proteins (14-3-3zeta) on chromatin promoter regions, resulting in a blunted hormone-dependent transcriptional response of select genes. These data argue that the phosphorylation of Ser134 acts as a molecular sensor on the GR, monitoring the level of cellular stress to redirect glucocorticoid-regulated signaling through altered 14-3-3zeta cofactor binding and promoter recruitment. This posttranslational modification allows prior cellular stress signals to dictate the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids.