Background: Inclusion of self-collected rectal swabs (SCRS) into existing community venue-based HIV surveillance systems for men who have sex with men (MSM) may provide a feasible method for monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related outcomes in this population. We measured the prevalence of HPV and anal dysplasia through incorporating SCRS into ManCount, the Vancouver site of the M-Track HIV surveillance system.
Methods: Participating MSM were provided with a self-collection kit for collection on-site or at a follow-up venue. Swabs were subject to polymerase chain reaction amplification for HPV detection, and cytology slides were reviewed for anal dysplasia. Factors associated with participation were identified through multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Of 766 men completing ManCount, 268 (35%) agreed to participate, self-collecting 252 specimens (247 on-site). Of 239 complete specimens, 33.5% did not have detectable β-globin; in the remainder (159 specimens) the prevalence of HPV infection was 62.3% (23.3% HPV type 16 or 18; 38.4% HPV type 6, 11, 16, or 18). In the 62.3% (149) of specimens adequate for cytology, the prevalence of anal dysplasia was 42.3% (HSIL 11.4%, LSIL 18.8%, ASC-US 6.7%, ASC-H 5.4%). Participation was associated with venue type, availability of on-site collection, and other characteristics.
Conclusions: SCRS can be feasibly integrated within existing community venue-based HIV surveillance systems for MSM, and may be a suitable method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination in this population. However, participation may be influenced by venue type and availability of on-site collection, and adequacy of SCRS specimens may be lower in community venues as compared with clinical settings.