Feasibility of incorporating self-collected rectal swabs into a community venue-based survey to measure the prevalence of HPV infection in men who have sex with men

Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Oct;38(10):964-9. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318222899d.


Background: Inclusion of self-collected rectal swabs (SCRS) into existing community venue-based HIV surveillance systems for men who have sex with men (MSM) may provide a feasible method for monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related outcomes in this population. We measured the prevalence of HPV and anal dysplasia through incorporating SCRS into ManCount, the Vancouver site of the M-Track HIV surveillance system.

Methods: Participating MSM were provided with a self-collection kit for collection on-site or at a follow-up venue. Swabs were subject to polymerase chain reaction amplification for HPV detection, and cytology slides were reviewed for anal dysplasia. Factors associated with participation were identified through multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Of 766 men completing ManCount, 268 (35%) agreed to participate, self-collecting 252 specimens (247 on-site). Of 239 complete specimens, 33.5% did not have detectable β-globin; in the remainder (159 specimens) the prevalence of HPV infection was 62.3% (23.3% HPV type 16 or 18; 38.4% HPV type 6, 11, 16, or 18). In the 62.3% (149) of specimens adequate for cytology, the prevalence of anal dysplasia was 42.3% (HSIL 11.4%, LSIL 18.8%, ASC-US 6.7%, ASC-H 5.4%). Participation was associated with venue type, availability of on-site collection, and other characteristics.

Conclusions: SCRS can be feasibly integrated within existing community venue-based HIV surveillance systems for MSM, and may be a suitable method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination in this population. However, participation may be influenced by venue type and availability of on-site collection, and adequacy of SCRS specimens may be lower in community venues as compared with clinical settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alphapapillomavirus / genetics
  • Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Anal Canal / pathology
  • Anal Canal / virology*
  • Anus Diseases / diagnosis
  • Anus Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Anus Diseases / virology
  • British Columbia / epidemiology
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Seropositivity
  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Prevalence
  • Rectum / pathology
  • Rectum / virology*
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vaccination
  • Young Adult