Protein Turnover and Thermogenesis in Response to High-Protein and High-Carbohydrate Feeding in Men

Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Jul;52(1):72-80. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/52.1.72.

Abstract

The rates of energy expenditure and wholebody protein turnover were determined during a 9-h period in a group of seven men while they received hourly isocaloric meals of high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content. Their responses to feeding were compared with those to a short period of fasting (15-24 h). The 9-h thermic response to the repeated feeding of HP meals was found to be greater than that to the HC meals (9.6 +/- 0.6% vs 5.7 +/- 0.4% of the energy intake, respectively, means +/- SEM, p less than 0.01). The rate of whole-body nitrogen turnover over 9 h increased from 17.6 +/- 2.2 g on the fasting day to 27.4 +/- 1.4 g during HC feeding (NS) and there was a further increase to 58.2 +/- 5.3 g resulting from HP feeding (p less than 0.001). By using theoretical estimates (based upon ATP requirements) of the metabolic cost of protein synthesis, 36 +/- 9% of the thermic response to HC feeding and 68 +/- 3% of the response to HP feeding could be accounted for by the increases in protein synthesis compared with the fasting state.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Basal Metabolism
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Constitution
  • Body Temperature Regulation / drug effects*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Eating / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Fasting
  • Fatty Acids / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Nitrogen / metabolism
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Proteins / metabolism*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Fatty Acids
  • Insulin
  • Proteins
  • Nitrogen