ARTreat Project: three-dimensional numerical simulation of plaque formation and development in the arteries

IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2012 Mar;16(2):272-8. doi: 10.1109/TITB.2011.2168418. Epub 2011 Sep 19.


Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous elements in arteries. It is characterized by dysfunction of endothelium and vasculitis, and accumulation of lipid, cholesterol, and cell elements inside blood vessel wall. In this study, a continuum-based approach for plaque formation and development in 3-D is presented. The blood flow is simulated by the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in lumen of the vessel is coupled with Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process was solved using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Transport of labeled LDL was fitted with our experiment on the rabbit animal model. Matching with histological data for LDL localization was achieved. Also, 3-D model of the straight artery with initial mild constriction of 30% plaque for formation and development is presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Viscosity
  • Computer Simulation
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / metabolism
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / pathology*
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / physiopathology
  • Rabbits
  • Stress, Mechanical


  • Lipoproteins, LDL