Collecting duct (CD) adenylyl cyclase VI (AC6) has been implicated in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated renal water reabsorption. To evaluate the role of CD-derived AC6 in regulating water homeostasis, mice were generated with CD-specific knockout (KO) of AC6 using the Cre/loxP system. CD AC6 KO and controls were studied under normal water intake, chronically water loaded, or water deprived; all of these conditions were repeated in the presence of continuous administration of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). During normal water intake or after water deprivation, urine osmolality (U(osm)) was reduced in CD AC6 KO animals vs. controls. Similarly, U(osm) was decreased in CD AC6 KO mice vs. controls after water deprivation+DDAVP administration. Pair-fed (with controls) CD AC6 KO mice also had lower urine osmolality vs. controls. There were no detectable differences between KO and control animals in fluid intake or urine volume under any conditions. CD AC6 KO mice did not have altered plasma AVP levels vs. controls. AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation was reduced in acutely isolated inner medullary CD (IMCD) from CD A6 KO vs. controls. Medullary aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein expression was lower in CD AC6 KO mice vs. controls. There were no differences in urinary urea excretion or IMCD UT-A1 expression; however, IMCD UT-A3 expression was reduced in CD AC6 KO mice vs. controls. In summary, AC6 in the CD regulates renal water excretion, most likely through control of AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation and AQP2.