Aim: The study was designed to find out the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis and to correlate thrombocytopenia with other parameters like renal failure, hepatic failure and bleeding manifestation like adult respiratory distress syndrome and to assess the role of platelet transfusion.
Materials and methods: 50 cases of leptospirosis during the month of July and August 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Criteria for selection were Lepto Tek Dri - dot test positive cases of the clinically suspected cases of Leptospirosis. Degree of thrombocytopenia was categorized as severe, moderate and mild. Presence of thrombocytopenia was clinically correlated with parameters like renal dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction and hemorrhagic manifestations (mainly ARDS). Role of platelet transfusion was assessed with reference to presence and degree of thrombcytopenia and hemorrhagic manifestations.
Results: Out of total 50 patients 26 were male and 24 were females. Major bleeding manifestation in the form of ARDS was seen in 15 (30%) of patients. 28 (56%) patients had thrombocytopenia and 22 (44%) patients had normal platelet counts. Total number of patients with renal dysfunction was 24 (48%). Only four (18.18%) patients with normal platelet counts had renal dysfunction while 20 (71.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had renal dysfunction. Only two (9.09%) patients with normal platelet counts and 48 (46.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had hepatorenal dysfunction. Total number of patients with ARDS was 15 (30%). Of these two (13.33%) had normal platelet count while 13 (86.6%) patients were thrombocytopenic. Total 47 units of platelets were transfused to 12 patients in our study. Of these seven patients with severe thrombocytopenia required total 28 units, two patients with moderate thrombocytopenia required total seven units and patients with mild thrombocytopenia were transfused total 12 units of platelets.
Conclusion: It is important to anticipate and recognize thrombocytopenia early in the course of leptospirosis so that appropriate steps can be taken to prevent it and to treat it with platelet transfusion when it develops.
Keywords: ARDS; hepatic dysfunction; leptospirosis; platelet transfusion; renal dysfunction; thrombocytopenia.