Trigeminal nerve stimulation: seminal animal and human studies for epilepsy and depression

Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;22(4):449-56, v. doi: 10.1016/


The unique ability to stimulate bilaterally, extracranially, and non-invasively may represent a significant advantage to invasive neuromodulation therapies. In humans thus far the technique has been applied noninvasively, and is termed external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNSTM).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Depressive Disorder / physiopathology
  • Depressive Disorder / therapy*
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / instrumentation*
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Epilepsy / physiopathology
  • Epilepsy / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Trigeminal Nerve / physiology*
  • Trigeminal Nerve / surgery*