The osteogenic potential of autogenous bone grafts is superior to that of allografts and xenografts because of their ability to release osteoinductive growth factors and provide a natural osteoconductive surface for cell attachment and growth. In this in vitro study, autogenous bone particles were harvested by four commonly used techniques and compared for their ability to promote an osteogenic response. Primary osteoblasts were isolated and seeded on autogenous bone grafts prepared from the mandibles of miniature pigs with a bone mill, piezo-surgery, bone scraper, and bone drill (bone slurry). The osteoblast cultures were compared for their ability to promote cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. After 4 and 8 hrs, significantly higher cell numbers were associated with bone mill and bone scraper samples compared with those acquired by bone slurry and piezo-surgery. Similar patterns were consistently observed up to 5 days. Furthermore, osteoblasts seeded on bone mill and scraper samples expressed significantly elevated mRNA levels of collagen, osteocalcin, and osterix at 3 and 14 days and produced more mineralized tissue as assessed by alizarin red staining. These results suggest that the larger bone graft particles produced by bone mill and bone scraper techniques have a higher osteogenic potential than bone slurry and piezo-surgery.