Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major health problem for immune-compromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. A vaccine against: P. aeruginosa has long been sought after, but is so far not available. Several vaccine candidates have been assessed in experimental animals and humans, which include sub-cellular fractions, capsule components, purified and recombinant proteins. Unique characteristics of the host and the pathogen have complicated the vaccine development. This review summarizes the current state of vaccine development for this ubiquitous pathogen, in particular to provide mucosal immunity against infections of the respiratory tract in susceptible individuals with cystic fibrosis.