Many challenges confront intervertebral disk engineering owing to complexity and the presence of extraordinary stresses. Rebuilding a disk of native function could be useful for removal of the symptoms and correction of altered spine kinematics. Improvement in understanding of disk properties and techniques for disk engineering brings promise to the fabrication of a functional motion segment for the treatment of disk degeneration. Increasing sophistication of techniques available in biomedical sciences will bring its application into clinics. This review provides an account of current progress and challenges of intervertebral disk bioengineering and discusses means to move forward and toward bedside translation.
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.