The technique of balloon aortic valvuloplasty has been used in infants, children, and adults since its first description in 1983. Immediate results reported by several workers and intermediate-term results by a few workers appear encouraging. Complications are minimal although potential for arterial complications and aortic insufficiency should be recognized. Significant restenosis rates at intermediate-term follow-up have been reported and could be minimized by reducing the risk factors associated with recurrence. Echo-Doppler studies are useful in follow-up evaluation of balloon valvuloplasty. The results seem to compare favorably with those following surgical valvotomy. The indications are essentially the same as those used for surgery; a gradient in excess of 80 mmHg irrespective of symptoms or a gradient greater than or equal to 50 mmHg with symptoms or ST-T wave changes. Previous surgical valvotomy is not a contraindication for balloon valvuloplasty. The technique is applicable to subaortic membranous stenosis as well. Thus far only one- to two-year follow-up results are available. Five- to ten-year follow-up results to document long-term effectiveness of balloon aortic valvuloplasty are needed. Miniaturization of currently bulky dilating catheter systems and improving rapidity of inflation/deflation of balloons are necessary to increase safety and effectiveness of these techniques in infants and children. Meticulous attention to the details of the technique and further refinement of the procedure may further increase effectiveness and reduce the complication rate.